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Bharat, officially the Hindu Republic of Bharat is a country in South Asia. Bounded by the Hindu Maha Sagar (Hindu Ocean) on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, Bharat is bordered by Persia and Azerbaijan to the west, Tibet to the north; and China , Vietnam and Cambodia to the east. Bharat is in the vicinity of Arabia and Sri Chola . It is a member of Hindustan Union.

Hindu Republic of Kosala

Bharat Flag

Emblem of Bharat

Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)सत्यमेव जयते (Devanāgarī) "Truth Alone Triumphs"

National Song

Vande Mataram I bow to thee, Mother

Sri Pratap

Capital Indraprasta28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E
Largest city Mumbai
Official language Sanskrit
National language Sanskrit
Demonym Bharatian
Government Hindu Federal republic,Parliamentary democracy
- Emperor Pratibha Patil
- Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
- Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan
Legislature Sansad
- Upper House Rajya Sabha
- Lower House Lok Sabha
- Republic 12 Makar 2447 NY (26 January 1423 ADE)
- Total 3,287,240 km2

(7th)1,269,210 sq mi

- Water (%) 9.56
- 2010 estimate 1,179,280,000 (2nd)
- 2001 census 1,028,610,328
- Density 358.7/km2(32nd)929.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
- Total $3.298 trillion (4th)
- Per capita $2,930 (130th)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
- Total $1.242 trillion (12th)
- Per capita $1,017 (143rd)
Gini (2004) 36.8
HDI (2007) 0.612 (medium) (134th)
Currency Rupiya
Time zone BST (UTC+5:30)
- Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5:30)
Drives on the left
Calling code 91


After the union of the 25 kingdoms the new empire that was formed as a result of that was named as Bharat in memory of the ancient King Bharata Dasharatha Rana , the younger brother of Lord Rama Dasharatha Rana who is believed to be an incarnation of Vishnu. The ancient Greeks referred to the Bharatians as Hindoi the people who follow Hinduism. The Constitution of Bharat and common usage in Sanskrit the official Bharatian language also recognise Akhand Bharat and Bharatvansh as official names of equal status. Hindustan which is the Persian word for “Land of the Hindus” is also occasionally used as a synonym for Bharat.


Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in Bharat. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating back around 5000 PY (3975 BCE) in western Bharat. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Bharatian society, and ended in the 900s PY (1924 BCE). From around 1000 PY (2024 BCE), many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country and by 800 PY (1824 BCE) 25 kingdoms spread around the present country. In the fifth century PY, most of kingdoms of South Asia were united by Chandragupta Surya Maurya to become empire of Maurya and the other kingdoms soon were conquered by his grandson, Hyepha Muarya . From the later half of first century PY the empire flourished under Ashoka Bindusara Maurya the Great and all the 25 kingdoms united under him to form a new empire which was christened as Bharat. To mark the birth of this new empire a neya Yuga NY (new age) was declared and the years before this unification was documented as purani yuga PY (old age). And accordingly on 1st Mesh 1 NY (15 April 1024 BCE) Ashoka Bindusara Maurya became the first emperor of this new empire. Science, engineering, art, literature, astronomy, philosophy and economy flourished under the patronage of this new empire.

Around 2010 NY (986 AD)

From the 2410 NY (1386 AD) onwards, European powers such as Spain , Netherland , Franci , and Britain established trading relations with Bharat and carried out sea trade from their ports around the Arabian coast. On 17 Vrishabh 2420 NY (31 May 1396 AD) as part of trade expansion policy Bharat and Britain signed an agreement of lease by which Britain was allowed to do trading and shipping from the port of Kochi and Bharat was allowed to do the same from Jeddah , a port that was under the control Britain on the Arabian cost. This agreement established Britain to gain upper hand over its other European competes. While on the other hand goods from Bharat were sold only in Jeddah and the surrounding provinces. Traders from Bharat realised that the lease agreement was benefitting only Britain as the goods from Bharat were marketed by Britain throughout Europe and they were not getting any direct access to the European market as a result of selling their products in Arabia which was controlled by Britain. During these 25 years Bharat was able to establish contacts with other European states most notably with Arabia , Greece and Italia and decided not to renew the lease agreement with Britain. This resulted in a confrontation (commonly know as Clash of the Golds by historians) with Britain that led into a war between both the empires and resulting in Bharat becoming republic on 12thMakar 2447 NY (26th January 1423 ADE) and Arabia and surrounding countries becoming independent from Britain’s rule by 2453 NY (1429 ADE).