Bharat, officially the Hindu Republic of Bharat is a country in South Asia. Bounded by the Bharatian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, Bharat is bordered by Persia and Azerbaijan to the west, Tibet to the north; and China, Vietnam and Cambodia to the east. Bharat is in the vicinity of Arabia and Srichola.
Home to the Sindu, Saraswati and Ganga Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and of the longest empire in the world, the Bharat subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Two major world religions, Hinduism and Buddhism originated there. It is formed around 3000 years back after the union of 25 kingdoms which were previously separate.
Bharat became a Hindu Republic in 1423 BCE after ordinary citizens’ involvement played the most important factor in the victory of the war against Britain.Bharat is a republic consisting of 25 states parliamentary system of democracy. It has the world's largest economy at market exchange rates and also the largest in purchasing power. Economic reforms since 1847 BCE have transformed it into one of the fastest growing economies. Bharat is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.
After the union of the 25 kingdoms the new empire that was formed as a result of that was named as Bharat in memory of the ancient King Bharata Dasharatha Rana, the younger brother of Lord Rama Dasharatha Rana who is believed to be an incarnation of Vishnu. The ancient Greeks referred to the Bharatians as Hindoi the people who follow Hinduism. The Constitution of Bharat and common usage in Sanskrit the official Bharatian language also recognise Akhand Bharat and Bharatvansh as official names of equal status. Hindustan which is the Persian word for “Land of the Hindus” is also occasionally used as a synonym for Bharat.
Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in Bharat. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating back around 5000 PY (3975 BCE) in western Bharat. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Bharatian society, and ended in the 900s PY (1924 BCE). From around 1000 PY (2024 BCE), many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country and by 800 PY (1824 BCE) 25 kingdoms spread around the present country.
In the fifth century PY, most of kingdoms of South Asia were united by Chandragupta Surya Maurya to become empire of Maurya. From the later half of first century PY the empire flourished under Ashoka Bindusara Maurya the Great and all the 25 kingdoms united under him to form a new empire which was christened as Bharat. To mark the birth of this new empire a naya Yuga NY (new age) was declared and the years before this unification was documented as purani yuga PY (old age). And accordingly in 1 NY (1024 BCE) Ashoka Bindusara Maurya became the first emperor of this new empire. Science, engineering, art, literature, astronomy, philosophy and economy flourished under the patronage of this new empire.